Plainfield Garden Club








Annuals and Biennials of the Shakespeare Garden

The original 1927 Olmsted Brothers Plant List for the Shakespeare Garden

These Annuals and Biennials are either found on the 1927 Olmsted Plant List or have been approved to be grown by the Shakespeare Garden Committee of the Plainfield Garden Club.

Last updated: March 2015

Amaranth caudatus

ANNUAL
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth or pigweed, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are presently recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold. Members of this genus share many characteristics and uses with members of the closely related genus Celosia.
Although several species are often considered weeds, people around the world value amaranths as leaf vegetables, cereals, and ornamentals.

The word comes from the Greek amarantos ( or ) the "one that does not wither," or the never-fading (flower).
The genus also contains several well-known ornamental plants, such as A. caudatus (love-lies-bleeding), a native of India and a vigorous, hardy annual with dark purplish flowers crowded in handsome drooping spikes. Another Indian annual, A. hypochondriacus (prince's feather), has deeply-veined lance-shaped leaves, purple on the under face, and deep crimson flowers densely packed on erect spikes.

DOCUMENTATION:
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Calendula officinalis

ANNUAL
Calendula officinalis, known as Pot Marigold or English Marigold, (Mary Buds) is a plant in the Calendula genus. It was used in ancient Greek, Roman, Arabic and Indian cultures as a medicinal herb as well as a dye for fabrics, foods and cosmetics.

The leaves and petals of the Pot Marigold are edible, with the petals added to dishes as a garnish and in lieu of saffron. The leaves can be sweet but are more commonly bitter, and may be used in salads.
Calendula officinalis is a cultivated herb and can be grown easily in sunny locations in most kinds of soils

Calendula officinalis is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain, and as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics, presumably due to presence of compounds such as saponins, resins and essential oils.

NOTE: Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens" Marigolds, Pot marigolds, and the French varieties, and African marigold

In Medieval times calendula officinalis or pot marigold was known as "Marygold."

"77. 2 Beds, 80 plants, 12" apart

Calendula orange King, 40 plants, Orange Pot Marigold

Calendula Lemon Queen, 40 plants, Lemon Pot Marigold"*

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare, by Henry N. Ellacombe. W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884.
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Sonnet 25

XXV.

Let those who are in favour with their stars
Of public honour and proud titles boast,
Whilst I, whom fortune of such triumph bars,
Unlook'd for joy in that I honour most.
Great princes' favourites their fair leaves spread
But as the marigold at the sun's eye,
And in themselves their pride lies buried,
For at a frown they in their glory die.
The painful warrior famoused for fight,
After a thousand victories once foil'd,
Is from the book of honour razed quite,
And all the rest forgot for which he toil'd:
Then happy I, that love and am beloved
Where I may not remove nor be removed.


Winter's Tale

The marigold that goes to bed with the sun
And with him rises weeping.

Caledula officinalis

Celosia

ANNUAL
Celosia is a small genus of edible and ornamental plants, similar in appearance and uses to the amaranths. They are sometimes called cockscombs or woolflowers for their brightly colored, woolly flower heads which resemble cockscombs. The name "cockscomb" may be restricted to those whose flower heads are crested by fasciation.

Also known as Celosia cristata (or Cockscombe) and Floure gentle.

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants of 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

The Merry Wives of Windsor
Act 3, Scene 1

SIR HUGH EVANS [Aside to DOCTOR CAIUS] Pray you let us not be
laughing-stocks to other men's humours; I desire you
in friendship, and I will one way or other make you amends.

[Aloud]

I will knog your urinals about your knave's cockscomb
for missing your meetings and appointments.

Centaurea cyanus

ANNUAL
Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower, Bachelor's button, Bluebottle, Boutonniere flower, Hurtsickle) is a small annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. "Cornflower" is also erroneously used for chicory, and more correctly for a few other Centaurea species; to distinguish C. cyanus from these it is sometimes called Common Cornflower. It may also be referred to as "basketflower" but this is highly misleading; the term properly refers to the Plectocephalus group of Centaurea, which is probably a distinct genus.

It is an annual plant growing to 40-90 cm tall, with grey-green branched stems. The leaves are lanceolate, 1-4 cm long. The flowers are most commonly an intense blue colour, produced in flowerheads (capitula) 1.5-3 cm diameter, with a ring of a few large, spreading ray florets surrounding a central cluster of disc florets. The blue pigment is protocyanin, which in roses is red.

In the past it often grew as a weed in crop fields, hence its name (fields growing grains such as wheat, barley, rye, or oats were formerly known as "corn fields" in England). It is now endangered in its native habitat by agricultural intensification, particularly over-use of herbicides, destroying its habitat; in the United Kingdom it has declined from 264 sites to just 3 sites in the last 50 years. It is also however, through introduction as an ornamental plant in gardens and a seed contaminant in crop seeds, now naturalised in many other parts of the world, including North America and parts of Australia.

In folklore, cornflowers were worn by young men in love; if the flower faded too quickly, it was taken as a sign that the man's love was unrequited.

In herbalism, a decoction of cornflower is effective in treating conjunctivitis, and as a wash for tired eyes.

In Medieval times centaurea cyanus or cornflower was known as "Mary's Crown."

"76. Centaurea cyamus, 90 plants, 9" apart, Cornflower, single varieties"*

DOCUMENTATION:
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified Book List of "Index Quotations"
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

What say you to young Master Fenton? he capers, he
dances, he has eyes of youth, he writes verses, he
speaks holiday, he smells April and May: he will
carry't, he will carry't; 'tis in his buttons; he
will carry't.


Merry Wives, III, ii

Delphinium Consolida

ANNUAL
Consolida is a genus of about 40 species of annual flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native from western Europe through the Mediterranean region east to central Asia. The common name, shared with the closely related genus Delphinium, is Larkspur.

Consolida differs from Delphinium in the flower structure, with the flowers in an open, loose, often branched spike, rather than the dense column of flowers found in Delphinium, and in the fruit, which comprises a single follicle, instead of a cluster of several together.

Also unlike most Delphinium species, all Consolida species are annual.
Delphinium is a genus of about 250 species of annual, biennial or perennial flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa. The common name, shared with the closely related genus Consolida, is Larkspur.

The Forking Larkspur (Delphinium consolida) prefers chalky loams. It grows wild in cornfields, but has become very rare nowadays. The flowers are commonly purple, but a white variety exists as well.

Documentation:
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884

Primrose, firstborn child of Ver;
Merry springtime's harbinger,
With her bells dim;
Oxlips in their cradles growing,
Marigolds on death-beds blowing,
Larks'-heels trim;

Bridal Song

Dianthus barbatus

BIENNIAL
Dianthus barbatus (Sweet William) is a species of Dianthus native to the mountains of southern Europe from the Pyrenees east to the Carpathians and the Balkans, with a variety disjunct in northeastern China, Korea, and southeasternmost Russia.

It is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant growing to 30-75 cm tall, with green to glaucous blue-green tapered leaves 4-10 cm long and 1-2 cm broad. The flowers are produced in a dense cluster of up to 30 at the top of the stems and have a spicy, clovelike scent; each flower is 23 cm diameter with five petals with serrated edges; in wild plants the petals are red with a white base.

There are two varieties:

Dianthus barbatus var. barbatus. Southern Europe. Leaves broader, up to 2 cm broad.
Dianthus barbatus var. asiaticus Nakai. Northeastern Asia. Leaves slenderer, not over 1 cm broad.

It is a popular ornamental plant in gardens, with numerous cultivars and hybrids selected for differing flower colour, ranging from white, pink, red and purple or with variegated patterns.

It was introduced to northern Europe in the sixteenth century, and later to North America and elsewhere, and has become locally to widely naturalised in these areas.

Its traditional use is in landscaping and cut flowers. Gerard praises its beauty but omits any reference to medicinal uses. Its height makes it convenient for flower arrangements. In the Victorian language of flowers, Sweet William symbolizes gallantry. The plant is widely used in borders, rock gardens and informal country cottage style gardens. Sweet William is a good candidate for a naturalistic garden because its nectar attracts birds, bees and butterflies.

Its flowers are considered edible.

It thrives in loamy, slightly alkaline soil with sun to partial shade. Propagation is by seed, cuttings or division but seeds of cultivars will not breed true. If it is planted from seed after the last frost, it will flower in the second year. If it is planted in flats before the last frost and then transplanted it may flower in the first year. Some gardeners recommend deadheading to encourage further flowering. The plant is self-seeding.

In 1977 the question of possible medical uses was revisited by Cordell. Saponins with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were found in Sweet William. There has been little followup.

Many legends purport to explain how Sweet William acquired its name, but none is verified. It is variously said to be named after Saint William of York, William the Conqueror, or Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. Another etymological derivation is that william is a corruption of the French oillet, meaning "little eye". Sweet William is a favourite name for lovelorn young men in English folkloric ballads.

In Medieval times dianthus barbatus or Sweet William was known as "Our Lady's Tuft."

DOCUMENTATION:
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Digitalis

BIENNIAL
Fairies Glove, Finger Hats, Foxglove
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials that are commonly called foxgloves. The genus was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae, but upon review of phylogenetic research, it has now been placed in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae.

The genus is native to Europe, western and central Asia, and northwestern Africa. The scientific name means "finger-like" and refers to the ease with which a flower of Digitalis purpurea can be fitted over a human fingertip. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, are tubular, and vary in colour with species, from purple to pink, white, and yellow. The best-known species is the Common Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. It is a biennial, often grown as an ornamental plant due to its showy flowers, that range in colour from purples through to whites, with variable marks and spotting. The first year of growth produces only the long, basal leaves. In the second year, the erect leafy stem 0.5-2.5 m tall develops.

The term digitalis is also used for preparations containing cardiac glycosides, particularly digoxin, extracted from plants of this genus.
Depending on the species, the digitalis plant may contain several deadly physiological and chemically related cardiac and steroidal glycosides. Thus, the digitalis has earned several more sinister monikers: Dead Man's Bells, and Witches' Gloves.

The entire plant is toxic (including the roots and seeds), although the leaves of the upper stem are particularly potent, with just a nibble being enough to potentially cause death. Early symptoms of ingestion include nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, wild hallucinations, delirium, and severe headache. Depending on the severity of the toxicosis the victim may later suffer irregular and slow pulse, tremors, various cerebral disturbances, especially of a visual nature (unusual colour visions with objects appearing yellowish to green, and blue halos around lights), convulsions, and deadly disturbances of the heart.

There have been instances of people confusing digitalis with the relatively harmless Symphytum (comfrey) plant (which is often brewed into a tea) with fatal consequences. Other fatal accidents involve children drinking the water in a vase containing digitalis plants. Drying does not reduce the toxicity of the plant. The plant is toxic to animals including all classes of livestock and poultry, as well as cats and dogs.

In Medieval times digitalis purpurea or foxglove was known as "Virgin's Glove."

A story of Queen Elizabeth and Shakespeare must perhaps be noticed here, the anecdote a mere late eighteenth-century invention relating to Queen Elizabeth at a theatre one evening while Shakespeare was playing a king, and bowing to him as she crossed the stage, but he went on with his part without returning the salutation. The Queen again passed him, and to directly attract his attention dropped her glove; the poet at once picked it up, and, continuing the delivery of his speech, added these lines –
"And though now bent on this high embassy,
Yet stoop we to take up our cousin's glove."

Sir, know you this glove?
King Henry V: IV, viii

"29. Digitalis purpurea, 74 plants, 12" apart, Common Foxglove"*

LOCATION:
West Border, North
West Border, South of Gate

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass.

Strangely enough, the Foxglove, so handsome and striking in our landscape, is not mentioned by Shakespeare, or by any of the old English poets. –www.botanical.com

Impatiens balsamina

Impatiens balsamina (Garden Balsam or Rose Balsam) is a species of Impatiens native to southern Asia in India and Myanmar.It is called kamantigue in the Philippines.

It is an annual plant growing to 2075 cm tall, with a thick, but soft stem. The leaves are spirally-arranged, 2.59 cm long and 12.5 cm broad, with a deeply toothed margin. The flowers are red, pink, purple, or white, and 2.55 cm diameter; they are pollinated by bees and other insects, and also by nectar-feeding birds.

Different parts of the plant are used to treat disease and skin afflctions; the leaves, seeds, and stems are also edible if cooked. Juice from balsam leaves treats warts and also snakebite, while the flower can be applied to burns to cool the skin.

It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, and has become naturalised and invasive on several Pacific Ocean islands.

Common names include impatiens, jewelweeds, and, somewhat ambigously, "balsams" and "touch-me-nots". As a rule-of-thumb, "jewelweed" is used exclusively for Nearctic species, "balsam" is usually applied to tropical species, and "touch-me-not" is typically used in Europe and North America. Some species commonly planted in horticulture have altogether more fanciful names, such as "Busy Lizzie" (the well-known I. walleriana).

Known in the works as "Balsam" or "Balsamum"

DOCUMENTATION:
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884

DROMIO OF SYRACUSE: Master, there is a bark of Epidamnum
That stays but till her owner comes aboard,
And then, sir, she bears away. Our fraughtage, sir,
I have convey'd aboard; and I have bought
The oil, the balsamum and aqua-vitae.
The ship is in her trim; the merry wind
Blows fair from land: they stay for nought at all
But for their owner, master, and yourself.

The Comedy of Errors Act IV, scene I

Lactuca sativa

Common Name: Lettuce

DOCUMENTATION:
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884

IAGO: Virtue! a fig! 'tis in ourselves that we are thus
or thus. Our bodies are our gardens, to the which
our wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant
nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop and weed up
thyme, supply it with one gender of herbs, or
distract it with many, either to have it sterile
with idleness, or manured with industry, why, the
power and corrigible authority of this lies in our
wills.

Othello Act I, scene III

Lagenaria siceraria

Common Name: Gourd

DOCUMENTATION:
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884

PISTOL: Let vultures gripe thy guts! for gourd and fullam holds,
And high and low beguiles the rich and poor:
Tester I'll have in pouch when thou shalt lack,
Base Phrygian Turk!

Merry Wives of Windsor Act I, scene III

Lathyrus odoratus

Sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) is a flowering plant in the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (legumes), native to the eastern Mediterranean region from Sicily east to Crete.

It is an annual climbing plant, growing to a height of 12 meters (nearly six feet and six inches), where suitable support is available. The leaves are pinnate with two leaflets and a terminal tendril, which twines around supporting plants and structures helping the sweet pea to climb. The flowers are purple, 2-3.5 centimeters broad, in the wild plant, larger and very variable in colour in the many cultivars.

The Sweet Pea L. odoratus, an annual, may be confused with the Everlasting Pea L. latifolius, a perennial.


peaseblossom! cobweb! moth! and mustardseed! A Midsummer Night's Dream: III, i

peas and beans are as dank here as a dog, and that King Henry IV, part I: II, i

Mirabilis jalapa

ANNUAL
Mirabilis jalapa (The four o'clock flower or marvel of Peru) is the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis, and is available in a range of colours. Mirabilis in Latin means wonderful and Jalapa is a town in Mexico. Mirabilis jalapa is said to have been exported from the Peruvian Andes in 1540.

A curious aspect of this plant is that flowers of different colours can be found simultaneously on the same plant. Additionally, an individual flower can be splashed with different colours. Another interesting point is a colour-changing phenomenon. For example, in the yellow variety, as the plant matures, it can display flowers that gradually change to a dark pink color. Similarly white flowers can change to light violet.

The flowers usually open from late afternoon onwards, then producing a strong, sweet-smelling fragrance, hence the first of its common names. In China, it is called the "shower flower" or "rice boiling flower" because it is in bloom at the time of these activities. In Hong Kong, it is known as "purple jasmine". Despite their appearance, the flowers are not formed from petals rather they are a pigmented modification of the calyx.

The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued moths of the Sphingidae family, such as the sphinx moths or hawk moths and other nocturnal pollinators attracted by the fragrance.

M. jalapa hails from tropical South America, but has become naturalised throughout tropical and warm temperate regions. In cooler temperate regions, it will die back with the first frosts, regrowing in the following spring from the tuberous roots. The plant does best in full sun. It grows to approximately 0.9 m in height. The single-seeded fruit are spherical, wrinkled and black upon maturity (see picture), having started out greenish-yellow. The plant will self-seed, often spreading rapidly if left unchecked in a garden. Some gardeners recommend that the seeds should be soaked before planting, but this is not totally necessary. In North America, the plant perennializes in warm, coastal environments, particularly in USDA Zones 910.

Around 1900, Carl Correns used the four o'clock as a model organism for his studies on cytoplasmic inheritance. He used the plant's variegated leaves to prove that certain factors outside the nucleus affected phenotype in a way not explained by Mendel's theories. Correns proposed that leaf color in Mirabilis was passed on via a uniparental mode of inheritance.

Also, when red-flowered plants are crossed with white-flowered plants, pink-flowered offspring, not red, are produced. This is an exception to Mendel's Law of Dominance, because in this case the "red" and "white" genes are of equal "strength" and neither can dominate the other.

The flowers are used in food colouring. The leaves may be eaten cooked as well, but only as an emergency food.

An edible crimson dye is obtained from the flowers to colour cakes and jellies.

In herbal medicine, parts of the plant may be used as a diuretic, purgative, and for vulnerary (wound healing) purposes. The root is believed an aphrodisiac as well as diuretic and purgative. It is used in the treatment of dropsy.

The leaves are used to reduce inflammation. A decoction of them (mashing and boiling) is used to treat abscesses. Leaf juice may be used to treat wounds.

Powdered, the seed of some varieities is used as a cosmetic and a dye. The seeds are considered poisonous.

DOCUMENTATION:
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Nasturtium

ANNUAL
See: In "Annuals of the Shakespeare Garden" Tropaelum.

See: In "Annuals of the Shakespeare Garden" Deliphinum or Lark's Heels.

Nigella Damascena

Nigella damascena (Love-in-a-mist) is an annual garden flowering plant, belonging to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

It is native to southern Europe (but adventive in more northern countries of Europe), north Africa and southwest Asia. It is also commonly grown in gardens in North America. It is found on neglected, damp patches of land.

The plant's common name comes from the flower being nestled in a ring of multifid, lacy bracts. It's also sometimes called Devil-in-the-Bush.

It grows to 20-50 cm tall, with pinnately divided, thread-like, alternate leaves.

The flowers are white, pink, pale purple or different shades of blue with 5-10 sepals. The actual petals are located at the base of the stamens and are minute and clawed. The sepals are the only colored part of the perianth. The 4-5 carpels of the compound pistil have each an erect style. The flowers blossom in May and June.

The fruit is a large and inflated capsule, growing from a compound ovary, and is composed of several united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. This is rather exceptional for a member of the buttercup family. The capsule becomes brown in late summer. The plant self-seeds, growing on the same spot year after year.
They are much used in dried flower bouquets.

There are several cultivars available with flowers in shades of pink and purple, including 'Albion', 'Blue Midget', 'Cambridge Blue', 'Miss Jekyll', 'Mulberry Rose', 'Oxford Blue' and 'Persian Jewels'.

In Medieval times nigella damascena or Love-in-a-Mist was known as "Our Lady in-the-shade."

SEE: Nigella sativa in "Annuals of the Shakespeare Garden"

Location:
Wheel, Bed II

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Nigella sativa

Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. It grows to 2030 cm (7.912 in) tall, with finely divided, linear (but not thread-like) leaves. The flowers are delicate, and usually coloured pale blue and white, with 510 petals. The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of 37 united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. The seed is used as a spice.

In English, Nigella sativa seed is variously called fennel flower, nutmeg flower, Roman coriander, blackseed, black caraway, or black onion seed. Other names used, sometimes misleadingly, are onion seed and black sesame, both of which are similar-looking but unrelated. The seeds are frequently referred to as black cumin, but this is also used for a different spice, Bunium persicum. The scientific name is a derivative of Latin niger "black". An older English name gith is now used for the corncockle. In English-speaking countries with large immigrant populations, it is also variously known as kalonji, kezah Hebrew, chernushka (Russian), rek otu (Turkish), habbat albarakah (Arabic ḥabbatu l-barakah "seed of blessing") or siyah daneh (Persianسیا

This potpourri of vernacular names for this plant reflects that its widespread use as a spice is relatively new in the English speaking world, and largely associated with immigrants from areas where it is well known. Increasing use is likely to result in one of the names winning out

Nigella sativa has a pungent bitter taste and a faint smell of strawberries. It is used primarily in candies and liquors. The variety of naan bread called Peshawari naan is as a rule topped with kalonji seeds. In herbal medicine, Nigella sativa has antihypertensive, carminative, and anthelmintic properties. They are eaten by elephants to aid digestion.

According to Zohary and Hopf, archeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa "is still scanty", but they report that N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb.[2] Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the after life.

The earliest written reference to N. sativa is thought to be in the book of Isaiah in the Old Testament where the reaping of nigella and wheat is contrasted (Isaiah 28: 25, 27). Easton's Bible dictionary states that the Hebrew word ketsah refers to without doubt to N. sativa (although not all translations are in agreement). According to Zohary and Hopf, N. sativa "was another traditional condiment of the Old World during classical times; and its black seeds were extensively used to flavor food."

Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, both as a herb and pressed into oil, in Asia, Middle East, and Africa. It has been traditionally used for a variety of conditions and treatments related to respiratory health, stomach and intestinal health, kidney and liver function, circulatory and immune system support, and for general well-being.

In Islam, it is regarded as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine available. The Islamic prophet Muhammad once stated that the black seed can heal every disease–except death–as recounted in the following hadith:

" Narrated Khalid bin Sa'd R.A:We went out and Ghalib bin Abjar R.A was accompanying us. He fell ill on the way and when we arrived at Medina he was still sick. Ibn Abi 'Atiq came to visit him and said to us, "Treat him with black cumin. Take five or seven seeds and crush them (mix the powder with oil) and drop the resulting mixture into both nostrils, for 'Aisha has narrated to me that she heard the Prophet saying, 'This black cumin is healing for all diseases except As-Sam.' 'Aisha said, 'What is As-Sam?' He said, 'Death.' " (Bukhari) "

Avicenna, most famous for his volumes called The Canon of Medicine, refers to nigella as the seed that stimulates the body's energy and helps recovery from fatigue and dispiritedness. It is also included in the list of natural drugs of 'Tibb-e-Nabavi', or "Medicine of the Prophet (Muhammad)", according to the tradition "hold onto the use of the black seeds for in it is healing for all diseases except death" (Sahih Bukhari vol. 7 book 71 # 592).

In the Unani Tibb system of medicine, N. sativa is regarded as a valuable remedy for a number of diseases.

The seeds have been traditionally used in the Middle East and Southeast Asian countries to treat ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases, to increase milk production in nursing mothers, to promote digestion and to fight parasitic infections. Its oil has been used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and boils and to treat cold symptoms. Its many uses have earned nigella the Arabic approbation 'Habbatul barakah', meaning the seed of blessing.

Black cumin oil contains nigellone, which protects guinea pigs from histamine-induced bronchial spasms[3] (perhaps explaining its use to relieve the symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and coughing).

The presence of an anti-tumor sterol, beta-sitosterol, lends credence to its traditional use to treat abscesses and tumors of the abdomen, eyes, and liver.

Nigella sativa oil is known to have opioid agonistic properties.

Thymoquinone and pancreatic cancer treatment
Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer at Jefferson in Philadelphia have found that thymoquinone, an extract of nigella sativa seed oil, blocked pancreatic cancer cell growth and killed the cells by enhancing the process of programmed cell death, (apoptosis). While the studies are in the early stages, the findings suggest that thymoquinone could eventually have some use as a preventative strategy in patients who have gone through surgery and chemotherapy or in individuals who are at a high risk of developing cancer.

In Medieval times nigella sativa or black cumin was known as "Black Cross."

SEE: Carum carvi entry in "Annuals of The Shakespeare Garden" as different sources reference Carum carvi and Nigella sativa as Shakespeare's reference to "caraway."

DOCUMENTATION:
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book list "Index of Quotations"

Nay, you shall see my orchard, where, in an
arbor, we will eat a last year's pippin of mine own
graffing, with a dish of caraways, and so forth.

2nd Henry IV, V, iii

Papaver rhoeas

Papaver rhoeas is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It has a variety of common names, including the Corn Poppy, Field Poppy, Flanders Poppy, or Red Poppy, one of the many species and genera named poppy. The four petals are vivid red, most commonly with a black spot at their base. It is a variable annual plant, forming a long-lived soil seed bank that can germinate when the soil is disturbed. In the northern hemisphere it generally flowers in late spring, but if the weather is warm enough other flowers frequently appear at the beginning of autumn. Like many other species of its genus, it exudes a white latex when the tissues are broken.

It is known to have been associated with agriculture in the Old World since early times. It has most of the characteristics of a successful weed of agriculture. These include an annual lifecycle that fits into that of most cereals, a tolerance of simple weed control methods, the ability to flower and seed itself before the crop is harvested. Like many such weeds, it also shows the tendency to become a crop in its own right; its seed is a moderately useful commodity, used in bread dough, for example, and to decorate bread. The red petals are used to make syrups and alcoholic/non-alcoholic drinks. Red poppy syrup is a traditional beverage of Mediterranean regions like Bozcaada.

The leaves and latex have an acrid taste and are mildly poisonous to grazing animals. The commonly grown decorative Shirley Poppy is a cultivar of this plant.

Its origin is not known for certain. As with many such plants, the area of origin is often ascribed by Americans to Europe, and by northern Europeans to southern Europe. The European Garden Flora suggests that it is Eurasia and North Africa'; in other words, the lands where agriculture has been practiced since the earliest times. It has had an old symbolism and association with agricultural fertility.

The corn poppy has become associated with wartime remembrance in the 20th century, especially during Remembrance Day in Commonwealth countries. As poppies bloomed in much of the western front in World War I, they have become a symbol of military veterans, especially of that war, immortalized in the poem In Flander's Fields by Canadian poet John McCrae. Since the poppy symbol is largely associated with Remembrance Day in Canada, the Canadian Mint has released a series of quarters into circulation that have the poppy imprinted on them in the center of the coin.

In Medieval times papaver rhoeas or corn poppy was known as "Our Lady in-the-Corn."

"74. 2 Beds, 150 plants, 6" apart

Papavier Daneborg, 25 plants, Shirley Poppy, scarlet

Papavier King Edward, 25 plants, Shirley Poppy, Scarlet

Papavier The Bride, 25 plants, Shirley Poppy, pure white

Papavier Mephisto, 25 plants, Shirley Poppy, deep scarlet

Papavier Admiral, 25 plants, Shirley Poppy, white edged with scarlet

Papavier Shirley wild, Rose Pink, 25 plants, Wild Rose Pink Shirley Poppy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Othello, III, iii

Not poppy, nor mandragora
Not all the drowsy syrups of the world
Shall ever medicine thee to that
Sweet sleep thou ownest yesterday

Papaver somniferum

ANNUAL
The Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and many refined opiates, including morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine, are extracted. The binomial name means, loosely, the "sleep-bringing poppy", referring to its narcotic properties. The seeds are important food items, and contain healthy oils used worldwide in the culinary arts. The plant itself is valuable for ornamental purposes.

Papaver somniferum is a species of plant with many sub-groups or varieties. Colors of the flower vary widely, as do other physical characteristics such as number and shape of petals, number of pods, production of morphine, etc.

A few of the varieties, notably the Norman and Przemko varieties, have low morphine content (less than one percent), but have much higher concentrations of other alkaloids. Most varieties, however, including those most popular for ornamental use or seed production, have a higher morphine content, with the average content being 10%

Ornamental cultivation
Many seed companies and nurseries grow and sell live plants and seeds in many highly beautiful variations. They are also sold dried for dried flower arrangements.

LOCATION:
Center Beds, 2 Square

DOCUMENTATION:
Hand-written Member List(2)
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Othello, The Moor of Venice
Act 3, Scene 3

IAGO Be not acknown on 't; I have use for it.
Go, leave me.

[Exit EMILIA]

I will in Cassio's lodging lose this napkin,
And let him find it. Trifles light as air
Are to the jealous confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ: this may do something.
The Moor already changes with my poison:
Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons.
Which at the first are scarce found to distaste,
But with a little act upon the blood.
Burn like the mines of Sulphur. I did say so:
Look, where he comes!

[Re-enter OTHELLO]

Not poppy, nor mandragora,
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou owedst yesterday.

Salvia Sclarea

BIENNIAL
Clary Sage. At maturity it reaches 1 m in height and has opposing, wooly-texture leaves that are 10-20 cm long and 6-12 cm broad. Its flowers appear in several clusters of 2-6 on the stem, are 2.5-3.5 cm long, and are white, pink, or pale purple in color. Clary has a strong and unusual odour that is considered unpleasant by some and very attractive to others.

Today it is mostly grown in England, France, and southern Russia for the perfume industry.

The distilled essential oil is occasionally found in specialty stores and scent shops. This odor is sometimes described as "sweaty", spicy, or "hay-like".

Clary seeds have a mucilaginous coat, which is why some old herbals recommended placing a seed into the eye of someone with a foreign object in it so that it could adhere to the object and make it easy to remove.

The leaves have also been used as a vegetable.
In ales, clary was used as a flavoring before the use of hops became common. Additionally it has been used to flavor wine, notably muscatel, and some tobacco products.

In Medieval times salvia sclarea or clary was known as "Christ's Eye."

"57. Salvia sclarea, 27 plants, 18" apart, Common Clary'*

LOCATION:
East Border, North

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Tropaeolum nasturtium

ANNUAL
Nasturtium (literally "nose-twister" or "nose-tweaker" or "lark's heels"), as a common name, refers to a genus of roughly 80 species of annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Tropaeolum ("Trophy"), one of three genera in the family Tropaeolaceae. It should not be confused with the Watercresses of the genus Nasturtium, of the Mustard family. This genus, native to South and Central America, includes several very popular garden plants, the most commonly grown being T. majus, T. peregrinum and T. speciosum. The hardiest species is T. polyphyllum from Chile, the perennial roots of which can survive underground when air temperatures drop as low as -15C (5F).

They have showy, often intensely bright flowers (the intense color can make macrophotography quite difficult), and rounded, peltate (shield-shaped) leaves with the petiole in the center. The flowers have five petals (sometimes more), a three-carpelled ovary, and a funnel-shaped nectar tube in the back.

The Nasturtiums receive their name from the fact that they produce an oil that is similar to that produced by Watercress (Nasturtium officinale), from the family Brassicaceae

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton

King Henry VI, Part ii
Act 3, Scene 2

SOMERSET Rear up his body; wring him by the nose.

Viola cornuta 'Admiration'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta 'Jersey Gem'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta lutea splendens

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta 'Mauve Queen'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta 'Papilio'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta 'Snow Queen'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta 'White Perfection'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola cornuta ' Yellow Gem'

"70. 4 Beds, 325 plants, 9" apart"

Viola cornuta Admiration, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Jersey Gem, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta lutea splendens, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta mauve queen, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy, mauve

Viola cornuta papilio, 41 plants, Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Snow Queen, 40 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta White Perfection, 41 plants, White Tufted Pansy

Viola cornuta Yellow Gem, 40 plants, Yellow Tufted Pansy"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Viola tricolor

ANNUAL
The term Johnny Jump Up can refer to:
A number of species of violet (Viola sp.), including:
1. Viola tricolor, also known as heartsease
2. Viola cornuta, also known as the tufted pansy
3. Viola pedunculata also known as the California golden violet
4. Viola bicolor, also known as the American field pansy

Heartsease (Viola tricolor) is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. It has been introduced into North America, where it has spread widely, and is known as the Johnny Jump Up (though this name is also applied to similar species such as the Yellow Pansy). It is the progenitor of the cultivated Pansy, and is therefore sometimes called Wild Pansy; before the cultivated Pansies were developed, "Pansy" was an alternative name for the wild form.

Heartsease is a small plant of creeping habit, reaching at most 15 cm in height, with flowers about 1.5 cm in diameter. It grows in short grassland on farms and wasteland, chiefly on acid or neutral soils. It is usually found in partial shade. It flowers from April to September. The flowers can be purple, blue, yellow or white. They are hermaphrodite and self-fertile, pollinated by bees.

As its name implies, Heartsease has a long history of use in herbalism. It has been recommended, among other uses, as a treatment for epilepsy, asthma, skin diseases and eczema. It has expectorant properties, and so has been used in the treatment of chest complaints such as bronchitis and whooping cough. It is also a diuretic, leading to its use in treating rheumatism and cystitis.

The flowers have also been used to make yellow, green and blue-green dyes, while the leaves can be used to make a chemical indicator.
Long before cultivated pansies were released into the trade in 1839, Heartsease was associated with thought in the "language of flowers", often by its alternative name of pansy (from the French "pense" - thought): hence Ophelia's often quoted line in Shakespeare's Hamlet, "There's pansies, that's for thoughts". What Shakespeare had in mind was Heartsease, not a modern garden pansy.

Shakespeare makes a more direct reference to Heartsease in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Oberon sends Puck to gather "a little western flower" that maidens call "Love-in-idleness". Oberon's account is that he diverted an arrow from Cupid's bow aimed at "a fair vestal, throned by the west" (supposedly Queen Elizabeth I) to fall upon the plant "before milk-white, now purple with love's wound". The "imperial vot'ress" passes on "fancy-free", destined never to fall in love. The juice of the heartsease now, claims Oberon, "on sleeping eyelids laid, Will make or man or woman madly dote Upon the next live creature that it sees." Equipped with such powers, Oberon and Puck control the fates of various characters in the play to provide Shakespeare's essential dramatic and comic structure for the play.
Heartsease has a large number of alternative colloquial names, up to two hundred.

In Medieval times viola tricolor or Wild Pansy was known as "Our Lady's Delight."

Pansies

All the early botanists make mention of it as a well-known plant, some giving rude woodcut representations, as Matthiolus, in the very curious Epitome de Plantis, printed at Florence in 1586, in which volume it is called Flos Trinitalis. The author adds that fhe French name is "pense," whence very obviously, the Shakespearean one, though when first employed in our own country there is no evidence to show. -Leo H. Brindon, The Shakespere Flora, Manchester, Palmer and Howe, 1883, p.91f

They had a number of different names and some 'physic virtues'; but Ophelia's words fixed attention upon the French derivation mentioned in all the herbals: pense or pense menue : not love thoughts, but thoughts of any kind, and here inevitably of the dead Polonius. -W.W. Lever, "Three Notes on Shakespeare's Plants," Review of English Studies, III,10.(1952), p. 124

"69. Viola tricolor special mixt. 525 plants, 6" apart, Common Pansy"*

LOCATION:
East Border, South

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare by Henry N. Ellacombe, W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
Act 4, Scene 5

OPHELIA There's rosemary, that's for remembrance; pray,
love, remember: and there is pansies. that's for thoughts.


Midsummer Night's Dream

It fell upon a little western flower
Before, milk white, now purple with love's wound
ANd maidens call it love in idleness.