Plainfield Garden Club








Roses of the Shakespeare Garden

The original 1927 Olmsted Brothers Plant List for the Shakespeare Garden

Rosa 'Alba'

It is thought that this white rose was so prevalent in Britain when the Roman's arrived that it was why they called the country 'Albion' after this white rose. Often it has pale pink flowers. It has grey-green foliage, a sweet scent, but its bushy foliage make it a hedge plant.

The Jeanne d'arc (1818) is a good medium sized bush of double cream flowers with good fragrance.

Specific cultivars: There are many named cultivars, some that have been cultivated and named for hundreds of years. Often a rose would get a name in one country, and another name in a different country. Alternate names are listed along with hardiness zones and ARS ratings when available

Rosa alba ‘White Rose of York' aka Rosa alba ‘Semi-Plena' –Well-known symbol for the House of York during the "War of the Roses", semi-double milk-white flowers, highly fragrant, shade tolerant (use to climb northern wall!), Hardy zones 3-9, ARS rating 8.9.
Rosa alba ‘Great Maiden's Blush' – (Prior to 1738) Creamy-pink or soft pink; very double flowers; long flowering season (to 6 weeks); poopular cottage garden choice; disease free; Hardy zones 4-10; ARS rating 8.9.

See Entry for "Rosa 'York.'

Location:
West Border, along fence

Documentation:
2002-06-19 West Border list
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Love's Labour's Lost
Act 1, Scene 1

BIRON Well, say I am; why should proud summer boast
Before the birds have any cause to sing?
Why should I joy in any abortive birth?
At Christmas I no more desire a rose
Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled mirth;
But like of each thing that in season grows.
So you, to study now it is too late,
Climb o'er the house to unlock the little gate.

Rosa 'Amy Robsart'

"32. 1 Bed, 10 plants, 3' apart'
Rose Amy Robart, 4 plants, a Hybrid Sweetbriar Rose - rose

Rosa Lady Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - copper

Rosa Lord Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - fawn"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa canina

Rosa canina (lit. Dog Rose, often called incorrectly Rosehip) is a variable scrambling rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.
It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1-5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked spines, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4-6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5-2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.

In Medieval times rosa canina or dog rose was known as "Mary's Thorn."

"36. Rosa Canna, 3 plants, 3' apart, Dogbrier Rose"*

LOCATION:
Fence along West Border

DOCUMENTATION:
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass
June 23, 2010 Deemed "invasive" the dog roses along the West Border were removed.

Shakespeare Sonnet 54
‘O! how much more doth beauty beauteous seem'

In sonnet 54, the speaker avers that beauty is only beautiful when it represents the truth of the soul; outward beauty is truly only skin deep.

First Quatrain: "O! how much more doth beauty beauteous seem"

In the first quatrain of Shakespeare Sonnet 54, the speaker proclaims that beauty is even more genuine when the object of loveliness is inwardly and as well as outwardly beautiful. He exemplifies his claim by citing the human feeling regarding a rose: "The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem / For that sweet odour, which doth in it live."

Because the rose smells sweet even as its petals display beauty, the flower is then held in ever higher regard. The beauty of the petals portray the outward beauty of the rose, while its aromatic fragrance represents its inward beauty.

Second Quatrain: "The canker blooms have full as deep a dye"

In contrast to the cultivated roses that produce beauty for both the visual and olfactory senses, the speaker cites the "canker blooms" which are wild dog roses. The wild canker blooms also present an outwardly pleasant appearance, but they lack the "perfumed tincture of the [cultivated] roses." Similar to the cultivated roses, the canker flowers also are protected by thorns, and "summer's breath" "plays" over them, but they are not truly appreciated, and they are not pressed into service for human beings as the perfumed roses are.

Third Quatrain: "But, for their virtue only is their show"

Unlike the perfumed rose, the canker roses have only the outward beauty. They are not sought after because their beauty exists only in the outward appearance of their petals. They do not exude their inward beauty. The cankers "[d]ie to themselves." The "[s]weet roses" are sought after for their outer and inner beauty. The sweet fragranced roses are turned into perfume after they expire: "Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made."

The Couplet: "And so of you, beauteous and lovely youth"

In the couplet, "And so of you, beauteous and lovely youth, / When that shall vade, my verse distills your truth," the speaker reveals that he has been making this comparison for the sake of his heavenly muse. The muse is eternally youthful, because it is a function of the immortal soul; the muse is eternally "lovely," because it reflects the beauty of the soul.

However, a poet's muse may seem to lose its vitality or evade the "beauteous and lovely" qualities as the poet ages. This poet/speaker vows to "distill your truth" in his verse. He will capture the truth in his poems; he will not be satisfied with making outwardly lovely sonnets, but instead he will fill them with eternal truths about transcendent things.

Rosa x centifolia

Rosa × centifolia (lit. hundred leaved/petaled rose; syn. R. gallica var. centifolia (L.) Regel), the provence rose or cabbage rose or Rose de Mai is a hybrid rose developed by Dutch rose breeders in the period between the 1600s and the 1800s, possibly earlier. It is a complex hybrid bred from Rosa gallica, Rosa moschata, Rosa canina, and Rosa damascena (Huxley 1992); its exact hereditary history is not well documented.
Centifolia Roses (Rosa centifolia)
The Dutch or Provence Cabbage Rose
Highly fragrant, gently nodding flowers - these are the "roses with a hundred petals".

These Old Garden Roses are still the subject of much debate when it comes to discussing their parentage but most rosarians agree they are beautiful specimens – even if they aren't one hundred percent sure how we ended up with them. Popularized by the Dutch, these beauties are now beloved by many.

In Medieval times rosa centifolia or cabbage rose was known as "Virgin's Rose."

"34. 1 Bed, 5 plants, 3' apart

Rosa centifolia Cabbage, 2 plants Cabbage Rose rosypink

Rosa Red Province, 2 plants Cabbage Rose crimson-red

Rosa Unique Blanche, 1 plant Cabbage Rose paper-white"*

LOCATION:
"See alternate 'Rose' listings"

DOCUMENTATION:
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Love's Labour's Lost
Act 4, Scene 3

So sweet a kiss the golden sun gives not
To those fresh morning drops upon the rose,
As thy eye-beams, when their fresh rays have smote
The night of dew that on my cheeks down flows:
Nor shines the silver moon one half so bright
Through the transparent bosom of the deep,
As doth thy face through tears of mine give light;
Thou shinest in every tear that I do weep:
No drop but as a coach doth carry thee;
So ridest thou triumphing in my woe.
Do but behold the tears that swell in me,
And they thy glory through my grief will show:
But do not love thyself; then thou wilt keep
My tears for glasses, and still make me weep.
O queen of queens! how far dost thou excel,
No thought can think, nor tongue of mortal tell.
How shall she know my griefs? I'll drop the paper:
Sweet leaves, shade folly. Who is he comes here


Two Noble Kinsman
of all flowers
He thinks the rose is best
.

Rosa 'Centifolia Muscosa'

Rosa centifolia
( 'Muscosa' Common Moss Rose )
'Muscosa' is a Moss or Cabbage rose that has rounded or cupped pink flowers on vigorous branches. Leaves are dark green and moss is dense on stems and calyces. In general, roses are a large group of flowering shrubs, most with showy flowers that are single-petalled to fully double petalled. Leaves are typically medium to dark green, glossy, and ovate, with finely toothed edges. Vary in size from 1/2 inch to 6 inches, five petals to more than 30, and in nearly every color. Often the flowers are very fragrant. Most varieties grow on long canes that sometimes climb. Unfortunatly, this favorite plant is quite susceptible to a variety of diseases and pests, many of which can be controlled with good cultural practices.
Also known as Common Moss Rose, Old Pink Moss

Location:
"See alternate 'Rose' listings"

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke

A Midsummer Night's Dream
Act 2, Scene 2

TITANIA Come, now a roundel and a fairy song;
Then, for the third part of a minute, hence;
Some to kill cankers in the musk-rose buds,
Some war with rere-mice for their leathern wings,
To make my small elves coats, and some keep back
The clamorous owl that nightly hoots and wonders
At our quaint spirits. Sing me now asleep;
Then to your offices and let me rest.

[The Fairies sing]

Rosa 'Damascena Bifera'

Scientific Name: Rosa damascena 'Bifera'
Common Name: Autumn Damask; Rose of Castile; Four Seasons Rose
Flower Color: Pink
Flower: Loosely petalled, double flowers; repeats; ruffled; medium size; blooms as well in the fall as in the summer
Type: Damask
Fragrance: Strong
Height: 5 feet
Comments: Loose upright shrub; downy gray-green leaves; tolerates poor soil but requires full sun; good disease resistance; prone to develop mildew; lax stems; 4 foot spread; petals good for pot-pouri; grown since 1000 BC

"37. 1 Bed, 7 plants, 3' apart

Rosa damascena, 2 plants
Damask Rose, rose-pink

Rosa Pres. Dutailly, 1 plant
Gallica Rose, carmine-purple

Rosa York and Lancaster, 2 plants
Damask Rose, pale red & white

Rosa Oeillet Flamand, 2 plants
Gallica Rose, pale-pink"*

LOCATION:
Circle

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Much Ado About Nothing
Act 1, Scene 3

DON JOHNI had rather be a canker in a hedge than a rose in
his grace, and it better fits my blood to be
disdained of all than to fashion a carriage to rob
love from any: in this, though I cannot be said to
be a flattering honest man, it must not be denied
but I am a plain-dealing villain. I am trusted with
a muzzle and enfranchised with a clog; therefore I
have decreed not to sing in my cage. If I had my
mouth, I would bite; if I had my liberty, I would do
my liking: in the meantime let me be that I am and
seek not to alter me.

Rosa 'Eglantine'

Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet briar or Eglantine Rose; syn. R. eglanteria) is a species of rose native to Europe and western Asia.

It is a dense deciduous shrub 2-3 m high and across, with the stems bearing numerous hooked prickles. The foliage has a strong apple-like fragrance. The leaves are pinnate, 5-9 cm long, with 5-9 rounded to oval leaflets with a serrated margin, and numerous glandular hairs. The flowers are 1.8-3 cm diameter, the five petals being pink with a white base, and the numerous stamens yellow; the flowers are produced in clusters of 2-7 together, from late spring to mid summer. The fruit is a globose to oblong red hip 1-2 cm diameter.

The name 'eglantine' derives from Latin aculeatus (thorny), by way of old French aiglant. 'Sweet' refers to the apple fragrance of the foliage, while 'briar' (also sometimes 'brier') is an old Anglo-Saxon word for any thorny shrub.

In addition to its pink flowers, it is valued for its scent, and the hips that form after the flowers and persist well into the winter. Graham Thomas recommends that it should be planted on the south or west side of the garden so that the fragrance will be brought into the garden on warm, moist winds.

In Medieval times rosa eglanteria or sweetbrier was known as "Our Lady's Leaf."

Location:
West Border on Fence, Circle and Thyme Bank

Documentation:
Shakespeare Garden by Esther Singleton
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
2002-06-19 West Border list
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Quotations"
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare, by Henry B. Ellacombe. W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884.

A Midsummer Night's Dream
Act 2, Scene 1

OBERON I pray thee, give it me.
I know a bank where the wild thyme blows,
Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows,
Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine,
With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine:


Cymbeline, IV, ii

Rosa foetida bicolor 'Austrian Copper'

Rosa foetida bicolor
Austrian Copper covers itself in small brightly colored blooms in the spring before many other roses have started blooming. The single blooms are bright orange/red with a yellow reverse and have bright yellow stamens.

It is a vigorous grower and very winter hardy, only taking a couple of years to get 6 or 7 feet high. It suckers and can take over a large area if allowed to do so. The foliage is pretty, with 5 to 7 leaflets per leaf. The fragrance is not, although I suppose this is a matter of opinion.

Austrian Copper sports back to Rosa foetida quite often. Here is a bloom that is part way there.

A receipt dated January 29, 1998 from Pickering Nurersies indicate that Evie Madsen purchased one Rosa 'Austrian Copper' for $8.50. Her handwritten notes indicate "fence," "8'," "orange," and "Planted April 8, 1998. This most likely means the rose was planted along the picket fence backing the West Border, it was expected to grow 8 feet and the color of blossom would be orange.

"35. 3 beds, 17 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Persian yellow, 6 plants, Austrian Brier-yellow

Rosa Austrian Copper, 5 plants, Austrian Brier Rose-copper red

Rosa Harrison's Yellow, 6 plants - 3
Austrian Brier-Rose-golden"*


DOCUMENTATION:
1998-01-29 Receipt from Pickering Nurseries
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa gallica

Rosa gallica, (Gallic Rose, French Rose, or Rose of Provence) is a species of rose native to southern and central Europe eastwards to Turkey and the Caucasus. The rosa gallica officinalis is also called Apothecary's Rose.

Also known as Rosa 'Red Provence.'
SEE: Rosa 'Red Province' in "Roses of the Shakespeare Garden"
SEE: Rosa 'President Dutailly' in "Roses of the Shakespeare Garden"
SEE: Rosa 'Oeillet Flamand' in "Roses of the Shakespeare Garden"
SEE: Rosa 'Lancaster' in "Roses of the Shakespeare Garden"

It is a deciduous shrub forming large patches of shrubbery, the stems with prickles and glandular bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with three to seven bluish-green leaflets. The flowers are clustered one to four together, single with five petals, fragrant, deep pink. The hips are globose to ovoid, 10-13 mm diameter, orange to brownish.

The species is easily cultivated on well drained soil in full sun to semishade; it can survive temperatures down to −25 °C. It is one of the earliest cultivated species of roses, being cultivated by the Greek and Romans and it was commonly used in Mediaeval gardens. In the 19th century it was the most important species of rose to be cultivated, and most modern European rose cultivars have at least a small contribution from R. gallica in their ancestry.

Cultivars of the species R. gallica and hybrids close in appearance are best referred to a Cultivar Group as the Gallica Group roses. The ancestry is usually unknown and the influence of other species can not be ruled out.

The Gallica Group roses share the vegetative characters of the species, forming low suckering shrubs. The flowers can be single, but most commonly double or semidouble. The colours range from white (rare) to pink and deep purple. All Gallica Group roses are once flowering. They are easily cultivated.

The semidouble cultivar 'Officinalis', the "Red Rose of Lancaster", is the county flower of Lancashire.

In 2004, a cultivar of the Gallica Group named 'Cardinal de Richelieu' was genetically engineered to produce the first blue rose.

In Medieval times rosa gallica or French Rose was known as "Rose of Jericho."

Rose

The Rose doth deserve the chiefest and most principall place among all floures whatsoever; beeing not onely esteemed for his beautie, vertues, and his fragrant and odoriferous smell; but also because it is the honour and ornament of our English Scepter...Which pleasant floures deserve the chiefest place in Crownes and garlands, as AnacreonThius a most ancient Geeke Poet...affirmes in those verses of a Rose, beginning thus
The Rose is the honour and the beautie of floures,
The Rose is the care and love of the Spring,
The Rose is the pleasure of th'heavenly powres:
The Boy of fair Venus, Cytheras darling,
Doth wrap in his head round with garlands of Rose
When to the dances of the Graces he goes.
-John Gerard, The Herbal or General History of Plants, 1633 Edition, New York, Dover Pub.,1975. p1259f.

In the rose imagry of Hamlet, the promise and the glory of the rose is sabotaged by the corruption of the canker.

LAERTES: The chariest maid is prodigal enough
If she unmask her beauty to the moon.
Virtue itself scapes not calumnious strokes.
The canker galls the infants of the spring
Too oft before their buttons be disclosed,
And in the morn and liquid dew of youth
Contagious blastments are most imminent. (I.iii.36-42)
...
HAMLET: Such an act
That blurs the grace and blush of modesty,
Calls virtue hypocrite, takes off the rose
From the fair forehead of an innocent love,
And sets a blister there, makes marriage vows
As false as dicers' oaths. (III.iv.42-46)
...
LAERTES: O rose of May,
Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia!
O heavens, is 't possible a young maid's wits
Should be as mortal as an old man's life?
Nature is fine in love, and where 'tis fine,
It sends some precious instance of itself
After the thing it loves. (IV.v.157-163)

OPHELIA: O what a noble mind is here o'erthrown!
The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue, sword,
Th' expectancy and rose of the fair state,
The glass of fashion, and the mold of form,
Th' observed of all observers, quite, quite, down! (III.i.153-157)

DOCUMENTATION:
Medieval Plant List, Cloister Gardens, NY
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Rosa 'Harrison's Yellow'

Harrison's Yellow Rose, Rosa 'Harrison's Yellow', puts on a spectacular show each June as the bright yellow flowers cascade from long, arching canes amid the aroma of licorice. The soft grayish-green foliage has a delicate appearance that belies this rose's durability and tenacity. These roses were first started from a plant over a century old at the bottom of Bailey Hill. Budded. A true American old rose, this sunny flower was so popular that pioneer women routinely took cuttings to carry with them across the wilderness to their new homes in the west. This rose is very prone to suckering and will spread well outside of it's boundaries. A very tough and prickly rose, it is a once bloomer and is sometimes referred to as the Yellow Rose of Texas.

It is believed to be a hybrid between R. pimpinellifolia, the Scotch rose, and R. foetida Persiana, Perian Yellow, from the Middle East. The hybrid originated in Long Island New York around 1830 and was carried across the country by the pioneers. It is a lovely, once blooming, rose that can be a bit of a nuisance when grown on its own roots.

"35. 3 beds, 17 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Persian yellow, 6 plants, Austrian Brier-yellow

Rosa Austrian Copper, 5 plants, Austrian Brier Rose-copper red

Rosa Harrison's Yellow, 6 plants - 3
Austrian Brier-Rose-golden"*


LOCATION:
Fence

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Sonnet 109
CIX.

O, never say that I was false of heart,
Though absence seem'd my flame to qualify.
As easy might I from myself depart
As from my soul, which in thy breast doth lie:
That is my home of love: if I have ranged,
Like him that travels I return again,
Just to the time, not with the time exchanged,
So that myself bring water for my stain.
Never believe, though in my nature reign'd
All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood,
That it could so preposterously be stain'd,
To leave for nothing all thy sum of good;
For nothing this wide universe I call,
Save thou, my rose; in it thou art my all.

Rosa 'Kathleen'

Name: Kathleen
Class: 'Hybrid Musk' Rose
Hybridizer/Date: Rev. Joseph Pemberton, England 1922
Parentage: Daphne x Perle des Jardins
Fragrance: Mild
ARS Color: Light Pink

"38. 1 Bed, 9 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Moonlight, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted lemon

Rosa Kathleen, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted pink

Rosa Sammy, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, carmine"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Lady Penzance'

"32. 1 Bed, 10 plants, 3' apart'
Rose Amy Robart, 4 plants, a Hybrid Sweetbriar Rose - rose

Rosa Lady Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - copper

Rosa Lord Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - fawn"*

James Plaisted Wilde, 1st Baron Penzance (July 12, 1816 - December 9, 1899) was a British judge and amateur gardener who was a vociferous proponent of the theory that the works usually attributed to William Shakespeare were in fact authored by Francis Bacon.

The son of a lawyer, he was the nephew of Lord Chancellor Thomas Wilde, 1st Baron Truro. He became a successful lawyer himself and received a knighthood in 1860. In the same year he married Lady Mary Bouverie (1825-1900), daughter of William Pleydell-Bouverie, 3rd Earl of Radnor. The couple resided at Eashing Park, Godalming.

He presided over the Court of Probate and Divorce from 1863 until his retirement in 1872, being created a peer in 1869. However, in 1875 he accepted the post as Dean of Arches and presided over a number of notorious trials, notably, Bell Cox, Dale, Enraght, Green and Tooth, under the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 arising out of the Ritualist controversy in the Church of England.

In 1866, he presided over Hyde v. Hyde, a polygamy case. In his ruling, Lord Penzance stated:

What, then, is the nature of this institution as understood in Christendom?...If it be of common acceptance and existence, it must needs have some pervading identity and universal basis. I conceive that marriage, as understood in Christendom, may for this purpose be defined as the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman, to the exclusion of all others.

which became the common-law definition of marriage throughout the British Empire (and successor states) for over a century. In Canada, this was overruled by an explicit statutory definition in the Civil Marriage Act 2005, which allowed for same-sex marriage.

At his garden in Godalming, from rosa eglanteria and rosa foetida he produced two new roses named Lady and Lord Penzance. He went on to produce a further 14 roses named for characters in the novels of Sir Walter Scott.

He argued that the works of Shakespeare are invariably accurate in matters of law and must, therefore, be the work of a scholar such as Bacon. Lord Penzance inspired others to examine the legal expertise used in Shakespeare, chiefly Sir George Greenwood M.P., who wrote "The Shakespeare Problem Revisited". A leading candidate for those who cannot accept Shakespeare as the author of the plays is now Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, who attended Grays Inn.

See: Rosa 'Lord Penzance' in "Rose of the Shakespeare Garden"

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Lancaster'

Rosa gallica 'Officinalis'
Rosa gallica or Lancaster's Red Rose (also known as Apothecary's Rose, Old Red Damask and Rose of Provins) is an official variety and is possibly the first cultivated rose.

The rose grew wild throughout central Asia and was discovered by the ancient Persians and Egyptians. Later adopted by the Romans, who introduced it to Gaul (France) where it assumed the name Rosa gallica. It is documented that Charlemagne's court exploited the rose as a perfume. The rose was also appreciated for its medical value and was utilized in countless medical remedies.

The Red Rose of Lancaster was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses. Upon Henry Tudor's ascension to the throne the rose was merged with the White Rose of York to form the Tudor Rose. The Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England (Scotland uses the thistle, Ireland uses the shamrock, and Wales uses the leek).
From the nineteenth century the red rose was part of the badge of a number of units of the British Army recruiting in the county.

In World War I the rose was worn by British 55th (West Lancashire) Division during their campaign in Belgium; their motto was "They win or die, who wear the Rose of Lancaster". The cap badge of the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, formed in 2006, features the rose.


"37. 1 Bed, 7 plants, 3' apart

Rosa damascena, 2 plants
Damask Rose, rose-pink

Rosa Pres. Dutailly, 1 plant
Gallica Rose, carmine-purple

Rosa York and Lancaster, 2 plants
Damask Rose, pale red & white

Rosa Oeillet Flamand, 2 plants
Gallica Rose, pale-pink"*

LOCATION:
Circle

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commision Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Venus and Adonis
Stanza 0

EVEN as the sun with purple-colour'd face
Had ta'en his last leave of the weeping morn,
Rose-cheek'd Adonis hied him to the chase;
Hunting he loved, but love he laugh'd to scorn;
Sick-thoughted Venus makes amain unto him,
And like a bold-faced suitor 'gins to woo him.


King Henry VI, Part iii
Act 1, Scene 1

WARWICK And so do I. Victorious Prince of York,
Before I see thee seated in that throne
Which now the house of Lancaster usurps,
I vow by heaven these eyes shall never close.
This is the palace of the fearful king,
And this the regal seat: possess it, York;
For this is thine and not King Henry's heirs'


Henry III

Plantagenet:
From off this briar pluck a white rose with me

Somerset:
Pluck a red rose off this thorn with me

Rosa 'Lord Penzance'

"32. 1 Bed, 10 plants, 3' apart'
Rose Amy Robart, 4 plants, a Hybrid Sweetbriar Rose - rose

Rosa Lady Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - copper

Rosa Lord Penzance, 3 plants, Hybrid Sweetbrier Rose - fawn"*

James Plaisted Wilde, 1st Baron Penzance (July 12, 1816 - December 9, 1899) was a British judge and amateur gardener who was a vociferous proponent of the theory that the works usually attributed to William Shakespeare were in fact authored by Francis Bacon.

The son of a lawyer, he was the nephew of Lord Chancellor Thomas Wilde, 1st Baron Truro. He became a successful lawyer himself and received a knighthood in 1860. In the same year he married Lady Mary Bouverie (1825-1900), daughter of William Pleydell-Bouverie, 3rd Earl of Radnor. The couple resided at Eashing Park, Godalming.

He presided over the Court of Probate and Divorce from 1863 until his retirement in 1872, being created a peer in 1869. However, in 1875 he accepted the post as Dean of Arches and presided over a number of notorious trials, notably, Bell Cox, Dale, Enraght, Green and Tooth, under the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 arising out of the Ritualist controversy in the Church of England.

In 1866, he presided over Hyde v. Hyde, a polygamy case. In his ruling, Lord Penzance stated:

What, then, is the nature of this institution as understood in Christendom?...If it be of common acceptance and existence, it must needs have some pervading identity and universal basis. I conceive that marriage, as understood in Christendom, may for this purpose be defined as the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman, to the exclusion of all others.

which became the common-law definition of marriage throughout the British Empire (and successor states) for over a century. In Canada, this was overruled by an explicit statutory definition in the Civil Marriage Act 2005, which allowed for same-sex marriage.

At his garden in Godalming, from rosa eglanteria and rosa foetida he produced two new roses named Lady and Lord Penzance. He went on to produce a further 14 roses named for characters in the novels of Sir Walter Scott.

He argued that the works of Shakespeare are invariably accurate in matters of law and must, therefore, be the work of a scholar such as Bacon. Lord Penzance inspired others to examine the legal expertise used in Shakespeare, chiefly Sir George Greenwood M.P., who wrote "The Shakespeare Problem Revisited". A leading candidate for those who cannot accept Shakespeare as the author of the plays is now Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, who attended Grays Inn.

See: Rosa 'Lady Penzance' in "Rose of the Shakespeare Garden"

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Maiden's Blush'

Rosa 'Great Maiden's Blush'

Common Name: Great Maiden's Blush; Maiden's Blush; Bella Donna; La Royal

The Rosa 'Maiden's Blush' on the Shakespeare Garden Dovecote was grown from a cutting taken from Shakespeare's wife's (Ann Hathaway) home at Stratford-Upon-Avon.

Maiden's Blush (Cuisse de Nymph)- fifteenth century - the name of this rose was changed to 'Maiden's Blush' in Victorian times as the 'Thigh of Nymph' was considered a little risque.

Flower Color: Pale flush pink; nearly white on outside
Flower: Medium size; very double; globular; petals remain slightly incurred on themselves
Type: Climbing Alba
Fragrance: Strong
Height: Up to 6 feet
Comments: Dark green leaves; weak stems with modest branch production; few prickles

Location:
Dovecote

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

A Midsummer Night's Dream
Act 1, Scene 1

THESEUS Either to die the death or to abjure
For ever the society of men.
Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires;
Know of your youth, examine well your blood,
Whether, if you yield not to your father's choice,
You can endure the livery of a nun,
For aye to be in shady cloister mew'd,
To live a barren sister all your life,
Chanting faint hymns to the cold fruitless moon.
Thrice-blessed they that master so their blood,
To undergo such maiden pilgrimage;
But earthlier happy is the rose distill'd,
Than that which withering on the virgin thorn
Grows, lives and dies in single blessedness
.

Rosa 'Moonlight'

Hybrid musk. 1913. Fantastic rose with wonderful brown stems and dark green leaves providing the perfect background for the semi-double white flowers with golden stamens. Very sweet scent. Perpetual flowering. 2.5m x 1.5m.

"38. 1 Bed, 9 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Moonlight, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted lemon

Rosa Kathleen, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted pink

Rosa Sammy, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, carmine"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa Moschata

Rosa Moschata, Musk rose
A low climbing rose with stems to 5m , with very few, rather straight thorns. Leaves light green.

A garden plant, native distribution not known.

This rose is still the subject of all sorts of mystery and confusion. It is an ancient cultivated plant, and its wild origin or parentage is at present unknown. It arrived in England from Italy in the mid-sixteenth century, and has been cultivated since then, as much for medicine, as a purgative, as for ornament. In recent times it nearly died out in cultivation in England, but was found by Graham Thomas in the garden of E.A. Bowles, at Myddelton House, just north of London; as Graham Thomas describes, Bowles records that he had it from Canon Ellacombe's garden at Bitton, near Bath. It is probably from this plant that those cultivated in England at present are derived. When trained on a wall the plant forms long arching shoots which produce a loose umbel of flowers at the tip. These appear over a long period from late summer into autumn, and on a recent visit to Mottisfont the plant was in full flower in early September, with many buds to come.

This form can be recognised by its hanging flowering shoots with flowers in a loose corymb on the end of the shoot; the flowers open in succession, not all at once, and are untidy with petals which twist in different directions; the strong scent is carried on the air. Single and semi-double flowers are sometimes found on the same plant, and it is this semi-double form which is the rose R. moschata ‘Plena'. Both are illustrated by Graham Thomas in ‘Climbing Roses, Old and New'.

The wild habitat of R. moschata has been the subject of much confusion, and it has never been found truly wild. It probably arose in the western Himalayan area, and was selected for its relative thornlessness, excellent scent and late flowering, as well as its
medicinal value as a purgative.

A Pickering Nursery receipt indicates that Evie Madsen purchased one Rosa Moschata, light grade on January 29, 1998 for $6.50. Her hand-written notes include "fence," "10'" and "W" which is taken to mean that the rose was planted along the picket fence backing the West Border, that the rose is expected to grow to 10 feet and that it is white. Also hand-written "Planted April 8, 1998."

Location:
Fence along West Border

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
1998-01-29 Pickering Nursery receipt
The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare, by Henry B. Ellacombe. W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884.

Antony and Cleopatra
Act 3, Scene 13

MARK ANTONY To him again: tell him he wears the rose
Of youth upon him; from which the world should note
Something particular: his coin, ships, legions,
May be a coward's; whose ministers would prevail
Under the service of a child as soon
As i' the command of Caesar: I dare him therefore
To lay his gay comparisons apart,
And answer me declined, sword against sword,
Ourselves alone. I'll write it: follow me.


CLEOPATRA What, no more ceremony? See, my women!
Against the blown rose may they stop their nose
That kneel'd unto the buds. Admit him, sir.

Rosa moschata

Rosa 'Multiflora'

Common Names: Dog Rose, Wild Rose
"See 'Rosa canina' for further description"

Location:
West Border on Fence

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
2002-06-19 West Border list

All's Well That Ends Well
Act 1, Scene 3

COUNTESS You have discharged this honestly; keep it to
yourself: many likelihoods informed me of this
before, which hung so tottering in the balance that
I could neither believe nor misdoubt. Pray you,
leave me: stall this in your bosom; and I thank you
for your honest care: I will speak with you further anon.

[Exit Steward]

[Enter HELENA]

Even so it was with me when I was young:
If ever we are nature's, these are ours; this thorn
Doth to our rose of youth rightly belong;
Our blood to us, this to our blood is born;
It is the show and seal of nature's truth,
Where love's strong passion is impress'd in youth:
By our remembrances of days foregone,
Such were our faults, or then we thought them none.
Her eye is sick on't: I observe her now.

Rosa Mundi

Rose Mundi, exact origins unknown. A sport of R. gallica officinalis.
Known as "Striped Rose."

ARS merit rating: 9.0
Personal merit rating: 8.5
Hardiness: Likely USDA zones 4 to 8, zone 4 in a protected location.
Shrub size: 3 to 4 feet tall X 4 feet wide.
Fragrance: 3.0, mild Gallica scent.

DOCUMENTATION:
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"

Rosa 'Oeillet Flamand'

"37. 1 Bed, 7 plants, 3' apart

Rosa damascena, 2 plants
Damask Rose, rose-pink

Rosa Pres. Dutailly, 1 plant
Gallica Rose, carmine-purple

Rosa York and Lancaster, 2 plants
Damask Rose, pale red & white

Rosa Oeillet Flamand, 2 plants
Gallica Rose, pale-pink"*

For more information, click Oeillet Roses

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Persian Yellow'

"35. 3 beds, 17 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Persian yellow, 6 plants, Austrian Brier-yellow

Rosa Austrian Copper, 5 plants, Austrian Brier Rose-copper red

Rosa Harrison's Yellow, 6 plants - 3
Austrian Brier-Rose-golden"*

• Rosa foetida f. persiana hort. ex Rehder
• Rosa foetida 'Persian Yellow'
• R. foetida persiana
HMF Ratings: HMF member overall rating: FAIR +.
ARS:Medium yellow Species. Exhibition name: R. foetida persiana.
Origin:Bred by Unknown (before 1838) .
Discovered in (1837) by Sir Henry Willock.
Class:Hybrid Foetida, Species / Wild.
Bloom:Golden-yellow. Unpleasant fragrance. 40 petals. Average diameter 2.5". Small, semi-double to double, globular bloom form. Once-blooming spring or summer.
Habit:Armed with thorns, spreading. Small, semi-glossy, fragrant foliage. 7 leaflets.
Height of 4' 11" to 6' 7" (150 to 200 cm). Width of 4' to 5' . (120 to 150 cm).
Growing:USDA zone 3b and warmer . Vigorous. Disease susceptibility: susceptible to blackspot . Do not prune. Resist the urge to prune this rose too heavily – it doesn't like it!.
Ploidy:References vary

Notes:
According to Dr. David Zlesak, the rose sold in North America as Persian Yellow is triploid, not tetraploid, suggesting a hybrid origin.
The Swedish Rose Society recommends Persian Yellow for northern Sweden.

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'President Dutailly'

"37. 1 Bed, 7 plants, 3' apart

Rosa damascena, 2 plants
Damask Rose, rose-pink

Rosa Pres. Dutailly, 1 plant
Gallica Rose, carmine-purple

Rosa York and Lancaster, 2 plants
Damask Rose, pale red & white

Rosa Oeillet Flamand, 2 plants
Gallica Rose, pale-pink"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Red Province'

"34. 1 Bed, 5 plants, 3' apart

Rosa centifolia Cabbage, 2 plants Cabbage Rose rosypink

Rosa Red Province, 2 plants Cabbage Rose crimson-red

Rosa Unique Blanche, 1 plant Cabbage Rose paper-white"*

The late Canon Ellacombe (1905) believed that the Cabbage-Rose was certainly in cultivation in England in the fifteenth century and probably earlier. He identifies it with the 'Rose of Rone' of Chaucer and with the 'Provincial Rose' of Shakespeare and adds.that the name of this Rose would be more properly written 'Provence' or Provins'. It is a curious fact that at Burbage the old Cabbage-Rose for eighty years at least has been more commonly called and known as the 'Red Province,' which is the old name used by the English Herbalists, Gerard (1596), Parkinson (1629), and Salmon, (1710). Apparently Miller(1733) was the first to change 'Province' to 'Provence' though he still retained provincialis for the Latin name. It may be that the old name for the Cabbage-Rose, 'Red Province,' has lingered on in remote country districts for centuries, like that archaic word of Chaucer 'glede,' which is still in common use at Burbage to signify the glowing embers in the fire. Baker in Willmott (1914) states that the first botanical figure of the Cabbage-Rose (R.centifolia L.) is that of L'Obel (1581) who describes it under the name of R. damascena maxima. Gerard (1596) includes it in his catalogue of plants under the name of "R. damascena flore multiplici, the Great Holland Rose, commonly called the Province Rose." In his Herbal of 1597, however, he describes and figures it under the name of "R. Hollandica sive Batava, the Great Holland Rose or Great Province." Clusius (1601) describes it under the name of R. centifolia batavica. Parkinson (1629) describes fully and figures what is undoubtedly the Cabbage-Rose under the name of "R. provincialis sive Hollandica Damascena, the Great Double Damaske Province or Holland Rose, that some call Centifolia Batavica incarnata."

SEE: Entry for Rosa Gallica in "Roses of the Shakespeare Garden"

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Sammy'

Bishop Pemberton was a parson who bred roses as a hobby. Curiously, the results of his part-time work may prove more durable and important than the works of several rose breeders who dedicated their whole lives to the enterprise of breeding and propagating roses. To what extent this was due to good luck, to what extent it was due to extreme good taste, and to what extent it is due to divine inspiration, each rose lover will have to judge for himself. For many, the beauties of Pemberton's roses are just too subtle or understated; for the flowers are neither exceptionally large nor very formally arranged. But those who look for roses with strong constitutions, fairly vigorous, hardy, and free of disease that are well branched, well foliaged, shrubby plants that bear blossoms generously and
bear flowers with plenty of fragrance will find much to love among Pemberton's offerings.

For more information on hybrid musk roses, click Pemberton's Hybrid Musk Roses

"38. 1 Bed, 9 plants, 3' apart

Rosa Moonlight, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted lemon

Rosa Kathleen, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, white tinted pink

Rosa Sammy, 3 plants
Hybrid Musk Rose, carmine"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'Silver Moon'

"19. Rosa Silver Moon, not used"*

1910. ‘Sliver Moon' is a lovely, semi-double, creamy white Wichuraiana hybrid with showy golden stamens and flowers as large as those of its other parent, the ‘Cherokee Rose'. The plant forms a large, cascading shrub or vigorous climber and has shiny, healthy foliage. The best display is usually in the spring, but scattered flowers can appear at any time on an established plant. ‘Silver Moon' in bloom on a warm night is a picture of glowing beauty and the fragrance can permeate the garden.

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass.

Rosa spinosissima

"25. Rosa spinosissima, 19 plants, 3' apart, Scotch Rose"*

DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass.

Rosa 'Unique Blanche'

"34. 1 Bed, 5 plants, 3' apart

Rosa centifolia Cabbage, 2 plants Cabbage Rose rosypink

Rosa Red Province, 2 plants Cabbage Rose crimson-red

Rosa Unique Blanche, 1 plant Cabbage Rose paper-white"*

Cultivar: Unique Blanche
Additional cultivar information: (aka Vierge de Cléry, White Provence, Unique Provins)
Hybridized by Veillard; Year of Registration or Introduction: 1775
Synonym:Rosa centifolia alba
Class:Centifolia
Height:4-6 ft. (1.2-1.8 m)
Bloom Color:White (w)
Bloom Shape:Double
Flower Fragrance:Very Fragrant
Bloom Time:Late Spring/Early Summer
Habit:Bush


DOCUMENTATION:
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass

Rosa 'York'

The White Rose of York (also called the Rose alba or rose argent), a white heraldic rose, is the symbol of the House of York and has since been adopted as a symbol of Yorkshire as a whole.

Traditionally the origins of the emblem are said to go back to Edmund of Langley in the fourteenth century, the first Duke of York and the founder of the House of York as a Cadet branch of the then ruling House of Plantagenet. The actual symbolism behind the rose has religious connotations as it represents the Virgin Mary, who was often called the Mystical Rose of Heaven. The Yorkist rose is white in colour, because in Christian liturgical symbolism, white is the symbol of light, typifing innocence and purity, joy and glory.

During the civil wars of the fifteenth century, the White Rose was the symbol of Yorkist forces opposed to the rival House of Lancaster, whose symbol was the Red Rose of Lancaster. The opposition of the two roses gave the wars their name: the Wars of the Roses. The conflict was ended by King Henry VII of England, who symbolically united the White and Red Roses to create the Tudor Rose, symbol of the Tudor dynasty. In the late Seventeenth Century the Jacobites took up the White Rose of York as their emblem, celebrating "White Rose Day" on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of James III and VIII in 1688.

R. alba maxima, from Europe, pre-15th century, exact history unknown.

This beautiful rose is one of the most subtle and simple of the Albas, and yet also a sophisticated shrub of great character. Also known as the 'Jacobite Rose', or the 'White Rose of York'.

This is a fairly tall rose in most climates, growing to 6 feet, or in mild climates, to as much as 10 feet. The shrub form is upright and arching, or fountain shaped. The foliage is typical of the Albas: grey-green and dark, generally disease free, although rarely this rose will get rust. Blooms are white when fully open, but depending on the weather, they will have a cream or blush pink tone at the center at the beginning. They are produced in small clusters of 3 or as many as 8, and are very strongly, and sweetly scented. There is a very old plant of Maxima here on the farm, and it is in bloom in the early summer for 6 to 8 weeks! Even though it is a once-bloomer, it makes up for that with its lasting display.

R. alba maxima is not an ordinary rose....it is a sublime beauty that works very well in cottage gardens. Just remember that Albas are best left unpruned so that they may develope their true shrub form, so don't plant one unless you can allow it the room to grow as it pleases.

ARS merit rating: 8.4
Personal merit rating: 8.5
Hardiness: Likely USDA zones 4 to 8, zone 4 in a protected location.
Shrub size: 8 feet tall X 7 feet wide
Fragrance: 4.0, sweet scent

One Rosa 'Alba Maxima' was ordered from Pickering Nurseries by Evie Madsen on January 29, 1998. Her hand-written note on the order form reads "Circle" and it is assumed the rose was planted in the Circle bed of roses within the Shakespeare Garden. Also hand-written is "7'" which one may assume indicates mature height. The rose cost $8.50. Also hand-written "Planted April 8, 1998"


"37. 1 Bed, 7 plants, 3' apart

Rosa damascena, 2 plants
Damask Rose, rose-pink

Rosa Pres. Dutailly, 1 plant
Gallica Rose, carmine-purple

Rosa York and Lancaster, 2 plants
Damask Rose, pale red & white

Rosa Oeillet Flamand, 2 plants
Gallica Rose, pale-pink"*



LOCATION:
Circle

DOCUMENTATION:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
Un-identified book plant list "Index of Flowers and Plants in 16th and 17th Century Gardens"
1998-01-29 Order form Pickering Nurseries
* 1927-10-15 Union County Park Commission Planting Plan for Shakespeare Garden, Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects, Brookline, Mass


Sonnet 10

X.

Sweet rose, fair flower, untimely pluck'd, soon vaded,
Pluck'd in the bud, and vaded in the spring!
Bright orient pearl, alack, too timely shaded!
Fair creature, kill'd too soon by death's sharp sting!
Like a green plum that hangs upon a tree,
And falls, through wind, before the fall should be.

I weep for thee, and yet no cause I have;
For why thou left'st me nothing in thy will:
And yet thou left'st me more than I did crave;
For why I craved nothing of thee still:
O yes, dear friend, I pardon crave of thee,
Thy discontent thou didst bequeath to me.


Henry VI, Part 2
Act 1, Scene 3

PETER [Giving his petition] Against my master, Thomas
Horner, for saying that the Duke of York was rightful
heir to the crown.


QUEEN MARGARET What sayst thou? did the Duke of York say he wasrightful heir to the crown?

Henry III
Plantagenet
From off this Briar pluck a white rose with me.

Somerset
Pluck a red rose off this thorn with me.

Rosa 'Zephirine Drouhin'

Zephirine Drouhin rose is an old Bourbon rose from 1868. It's one of the best known climbers in the world and for good reasons.
The canes of this rose are very unique. Not only are the canes very flexible for training and have the color of burgundy, which is very beautiful; but they are virtually thornless.

A receipt dated January 29, 1998 from Pickering Nursery indicates that Evie Madsen bought one Rosa 'Zephierine Drouhin' at the cost of $8.50. Hand-written notes include "fence," "8'," "Climber," and "Pink to red" which indicate that the rose was planted on the West Border fence, it is expected to grow to 8', the rose is a climber and the color of blossom is "pink to red." Also hand-written "April 8, 1998."

Location:
South end of West Border

Documentation:
1995, orginals from Sr. Agnes, Russell Gatzke
1998-01-29 Pickering Nursery Receipt

Sonnet 95

XCV.

How sweet and lovely dost thou make the shame
Which, like a canker in the fragrant rose,
Doth spot the beauty of thy budding name!
O, in what sweets dost thou thy sins enclose!
That tongue that tells the story of thy days,
Making lascivious comments on thy sport,
Cannot dispraise but in a kind of praise;
Naming thy name blesses an ill report.
O, what a mansion have those vices got
Which for their habitation chose out thee,
Where beauty's veil doth cover every blot,
And all things turn to fair that eyes can see!
Take heed, dear heart, of this large privilege;
The hardest knife ill-used doth lose his edge.

Ann Hathaway's Cottage

Rosa 'Maiden's Blush' which grows on the Shakespeare Garden Dovecote was grown from a cutting taken from Shakespeare's wife's famous cottage home at Stratford-Upon-Avon, England.

The Evolution of the Rosa genus

To begin, long before the time of man, various parts of the planet were populated with wild roses, what scientists now term species roses. It is generally agreed that as many as two hundred such species exist today.

To simplify matters, Kingston had divided the rose family into two main groups: those that orginated in the Far East and those from various parts of the Westerns world, principally Europe and the Middle East. Two of the earliest wild roses from the later group are Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata. While their origin may never be determined, it is generally agreed that they are ancestors of many of today's cultivars. Over centuries, with natural cross-hybridization, new species developed and roses continued to thrive.

It wasn't until the Renaissance, when botanists and herbalists began exploring plant forms, that it was discovered that variations in these ancient roses might occur by harvesting the seeds in the hips and replanting them. Soon, roses were widely cultivated and used for personal adornment, in cosmetics, and in cooking. The rose as a symbol became increasingly secularized. It became a symbol not only of love but also of monarchal power: During the Wars of the Roses, the white rose was associated with the House of York and the red roses with the House of Lancaster.

Botanists labeled these hybrids as Antique roses and began to classify them. Five families of Antique roses resulted. Gallicas are the oldest of the group, of which there are now about fifty hybrids in general cultivation. Damasks are thought to have reached Europe with the help of the Crusaders and believed to be a natural hybrid between a Gallica rose and a Persian rose. Albas are a cross between a Damask and the European dog rose. Grown by the Romans, Albas are usually white or off-white. Centifolias – also known as cabbage roses – are so called because they have up to one hundred petals. The Dutch are credited with developing Centifolia roses in the seventeenth century. Last is the Moss rose family, first observed in France in the 1600s. Mosses are distinguished by mosslike growth on their stems, calyxes and sepals.

Excerpt from The Trail of the Wild Rose by Anthony Eglin